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物联网是如何工作的(2):网络连接-betway官网_betway必威手机版_betway必威体育

在上一篇文章中,咱们了解了物联网实践运用中是怎么搜集信息的。接下去就要将这些数据传送到云服务进行处理。这一进程是怎么完成的呢?

作者 | Anni Junnila

来历 | trackinno.com

翻译 | 周治中

本文咱们要点评论物联网的第二个要素:网络衔接。

什么是网络衔接?

网络衔接是物联网拼图中的重要一环,使“物”能够相“联”并交流数据。衔接的完成既能够经过有线网也能够经过无线网。然而在物联网的绝大多数运用场景下,有线网都不适用,因为它的掩盖规模受限于线缆铺设的规模。而绝大多数物联网运用场景都需求更大的掩盖规模,因而本文要点评论无线网络衔接。

水泵

可供物联网挑选的网络衔接选项许多,比方蜂窝移动网络、卫星通讯、WiFi、低功耗广域网(LPWAN)和蓝牙等。

长滩岛在哪里

在挑选运用哪种网络时,有许多要素需求考虑:掩盖(数据能够传送的最远间隔)、带宽(单位时刻内能够传送的数据量)、功耗(电池续航时刻)、本钱、可靠性和可用性等。

最理想的网络选项最好具有掩盖大、带宽高、本钱低和功耗低的长处。但不幸的是,这样的物联网是怎么作业的(2):网络衔接-betway官网_betway必威手机版_betway必威体育网络衔接技能还未问世。一般来讲,扩展掩盖规模就会添加功耗,进步带宽就会添加本钱613邯大主教楼事情(或许下降掩盖)。

咱们来调查一下物联网最常用的网络衔接选项,并进行简略比较和总结,最终汇总成一个表格放在文章最终。

低功耗广域网(LPWAN)

低功耗广域网(LPWAN),例如LaRa和Sigfox,是一种相对较新的网络:仅有极少数国家具有全国规模的LPWAN。依据咨询公司麦肯锡的调研,至2017年LPWAN仅掩盖了全球20%的人口。麦肯锡一起还猜测,要到2022年才干完成LPWAN的100%掩盖。

望文生义,低功耗广域网具有两个重要特性:

LPWAN根据间歇性(如一天数次)发送少数数据的理念,这使得低功耗成为可能。

LPWAN的一个运用场景是智能废物办理,装有位高传感器的废物桶只要在必要时才会被整理。相似这样的运用中,偶然向云端发送少数数据就足够了。没必要布置一个实时监控体系比较,重要的是让每个废物桶的网络衔接本钱坚持在合理水平,一起让电池坚持长续航(如数年)。

蜂窝移动网络是最常见的网络衔接:你的手机便是经过这种网络收发数据的。蜂窝移动网络有许多优势。它可靠性高,能供给远间隔通讯,一起还有很高的带宽。蜂窝移动网络还具有很好的可用性(优于LPWAN的现状)。

蜂窝移动网络的下风是本钱和功耗相对较高。不过,已有一些旨在处理这些问题的新式网络呈现,其中之一便是窄带物联网(NB-IoT)。NB-IoT其实便是将LPWAN技能运用于蜂窝移动网络的基础设施上。

因为本钱高、功耗高,许多物联网运用场景下,移动蜂窝网络并不是最佳挑选。不过它能够用来追寻长间隔运送的宝贵财物(比方车辆和集装箱)。

卫星通讯带宽高、掩盖广,但功耗也十分之高。卫星通讯的优点是在地球上任何一个当地都可用。因而,假怎么跃林想接纳正在大海中飞行的集装箱的信息风寒伤风颗粒,卫星通讯可能是你仅有的挑选。

蓝牙(低功耗)和WiFi

在近间隔通讯时,蓝牙和WiFi是不错的挑选。它们比LPWAN带宽高,一起比卫星通讯和蜂窝移动网络功耗低。

除了传统蓝牙,还有一个更新的版别叫蓝牙低功耗(BLE,Bluetooth Low-Energy)。BLE技能将功耗进一步下降:仅是传统蓝牙功耗的几分之一。

蓝牙/WiFi的一个物联网运用场景是医院(或其它室内)财物的追寻。经过布置多个蓝牙/WiFi接入点,使用三角定位法就能够确认财物所在的方位。

总结

下表对上述网络衔接选项做一个简略的总结:

上表能够看出,一切的网络衔接选项都各有利弊,怎么挑选取决于详细的物联网运用场景。

到目前为止,咱们现已经过传感器搜集好数据,并经过某种网络处理方案将数据传送到了云服务。接下来,咱们必须将数据变得有用,这意味着要对数据进行处理。敬请期待咱们下一篇文章《物联网怎么作业(3):数据处理》。

往期译文:

原创译文 | 物联网怎么作业(1):传感器

This article is the second part of our “How IoT Works” series, in which we’ll cover the key elements of IoT in a simple, understandable way.

Internet of Things (IoT) solutions typically consist of four fundamental elements:

In the previous article (How IoT Works – Part 1: Sensors) we learned how information is co冰雪奇缘主题曲llected in IoT applications. The next step is to send the data to a cloud-based service for processing. So how does it get there?

In this article, we’ll concentrate on the second element on the list: connectivity.

What is Connectivity?

Connectivity is the piece of the IoT puzzle which enables the “things” to communicate and exchange data. The connection can be achieved via wired or wireless network. However, wired network is unsuitable for most北京市委书记 IoT applications because its range is only as far as the wire can reach. Most IoT applications require more range so we’ll c师傅不要全文免费阅览oncentrate on wireless connectivity in this article.

Connectivity Options for IoT

There are many connectivity options for IoT, such as cellular, satellite, WiFi, low-power wide-area networks (LPWAN), and Bluetooth.

When selecting a connectivity option, there are manyapproach factors to take into consideration: range (maximum distance over which data can be sent), bandwidth (how much data can be sent), power consumption (how long the battery will last), costs, reliability, and availability, for example.

The optimal connectivity option would have high range, high bandwidth, low costs and low power consumption. Unfortunately, that kind of connectivity technology does not exist (yet). For example, increasing range tends to increase power consumption, and increasing bandwidth usually increases costs (or d物联网是怎么作业的(2):网络衔接-betway官网_betway必威手机版_betway必威体育ecreases range).

Let’s take a look at some of the most used connectivity options for IoT. At the end of the article, you can find a very simple table comparing and summarizing the options.

Low-Power Wide-Area Networks (LPWAN)

Low-power wide-area networks (LPWAN), such as LoRa and Sigfox, are relatively new: only a few countries have nationwide LPWAN available. According to McKinsey, 20% of the world’s population was covered by LPWA networks in 2017. Also, McKinsey expects that 100% of the population will物联网是怎么作业的(2):网络衔接-betway官网_betway必威手机版_betway必威体育 have LPWAN coverage by 2022.

As the name implies, LPWANs share two important characteristics:

LPWAN technology is based on the idea of sending small amounts of data intermittently (a few times a day, for example), which makes the low power consumption possible.

One use case for LPWANs is smart waste management, where trash bins are equipped with level sensors and emptied only when needed. In a use case like this it is sufficient to send a small amount of data to the cloud every now and the袁绍n. Instead of having a real-time monitoring system, it is more important to have batteries that last long (e.g. several years) and reasonable connectivity costs per trash bin.

Cellular

Cellular connectivity is the most familiar option: it’s the one your mobile phone uses to send and receive data. Cellular connectivity has many benefits. It’s a reliable option and it provides communication over long distances in addition to a high bandwidth. Cellular connectivity also has a good availability (unlike LPWAN at the moment).

The downside is that cellular connectivity has好听的网名男生 relatively high costs and high power consumption. However, there are new cellular networks that aim to address these problems. One of them is Narrowband IoT (NB-IoT), which is a LPWAN technology that utilizes the exis物联网是怎么作业的(2):网络衔接-betway官网_betway必威手机版_betway必威体育ting cellular network infrastructure.

Cellular con山东移动nectivity is not optimal for many IoT use cases due to its high power consumption and costs. However, it can be used for物联网是怎么作业的(2):网络衔接-betway官网_betway必威手机版_betway必威体育 tracking expensive assets (vehicles, shipping contain性侵幼女ers, etc.) that travel over long distances, for example.

Satellite

Satellite communication has high bandwidth and h换算igh range, but it also comes with a very high power consumption. The good thing about satellite communication i物联网是怎么作业的(2):网络衔接-betway官网_betway必威手机版_betway必威体育s that it works anywhere on Earth. Thus, satellite communication is probably the only option if you need to receive information about shipping containers when they are travelling in the 过敏性咳嗽middle of an ocean, for example.

Bluetooth (Low-Energy) and WiFi

B物联网是怎么作业的(2):网络衔接-betway官网_betway必威手机版_betway必威体育luetooth and WiFi are good options for short-range communication. They have higher bandwidth than LPWANs and lower power consumption than satellite and cellular.

In addition to traditional Bluetooth, the黄西re is also a newer version available, which is called Bluetooth low-energy (BLE). The technology used in BLE enables even lower power consumption: it only needs a fraction of the energy required by traditional Bluetooth.

One example of an IoT use case that utilizes Bluetooth援组词/WiFi is hospital (or other indoor) asset tracking. By using multiple Bluetooth/WiFi access points, you can determine an asset’s location by means of triangulation.

Summary

Here’s a table presenting a very simple summary of the connectivity options introduced above.

As we learned, all the options have their pros and cons. The right choice depends on your IoT use case.

What’s Next in the IoT Workflow?

So far we have collected the data by sensors and used a 共赴洪蒙network solution to send the data to a cloud service. Next, we have to make the data useful, which means we need to process it. Stay tuned for our next article “How 长公主直播日常IoT Works – Part 3: Data Processing”!